The Reykjanes Ridge: structure and tectonics of a hot-spot-influenced, slow-spreading ridge, from multibeam bathymetry, gravity and magnetic investigations SCIE SCOPUS

Cited 87 time in WEB OF SCIENCE Cited 0 time in Scopus
Title
The Reykjanes Ridge: structure and tectonics of a hot-spot-influenced, slow-spreading ridge, from multibeam bathymetry, gravity and magnetic investigations
Author(s)
Searle, RC; Keeton, JA; Owens, RB; White, RS; Mecklenburgh, R; Parsons, B; Lee, SM
Alternative Author(s)
이상묵
Publication Year
1998-08
Abstract
We report a comprehensive morphological, gravity and magnetic survey of the oblique- and slow-spreading Reykjanes Ridge near the Iceland mantle plume. The survey extends from 57.9 degrees N to 62.1 degrees N and from the spreading axis to between 30 km (3 Ma) and 100 km (10 Ma) off-axis; it includes 100 km of one arm of a diachronous 'V-shaped' or 'chevron' ridge. Observed isochrons are extremely linear and 28 degrees oblique to the spreading normal with no significant offsets. Along-axis there are ubiquitous, en-echelon axial volcanic ridges (AVRs), sub-normal to the spreading direction, with average spacing of 14 km and overlap of about one third of their lengths. Relict AVRs occur off-axis, but are most obvious where there has been least axial faulting, suggesting that elsewhere they are rapidly eroded tectonically. AVRs maintain similar plan views but have reduced heights nearer Iceland. They are flanked by normal faults sub-parallel to the ridge axis, the innermost of which occur slightly closer to the axis towards Iceland, suggesting a gradual reduction of the effective lithospheric thickness there. Generally, the amplitude of faulting decreases towards Iceland. We interpret this pattern of AVRs and faults as the response of the lithosphere to oblique spreading, as suggested by theory and physical modelling. An axial, 10-15 km wide zone of high acoustic backscatter marks the most recent volcanic activity. The zone's width is independent of the presence of a median valley, so axial volcanism is not primarily delimited by median valley walls, but is probably controlled by the lateral distance that the oblique AVRs can propagate into off-axis lithosphere. The mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) exhibits little mid- to short-wavelength variation above a few milliGals, and along-axis variations are small compared with other parts of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nevertheless, there are small axial deeps and MBA highs spaced some 130 km along-axis that may represent subdued third-order segment boundaries. They lack coherent off-axis traces and cannot be linked to Oligocene fracture zones on the ridge flanks. The surveyed chevron ridge is morphologically discontinuous, comprising several parallel bands of closely spaced, elevated blocks. These reflect the surrounding tectonic fabric but have higher fault scarps. There is no evidence for off-axis volcanism or greater abundance of seamounts on the chevron. Free-air gravity over it is greater than expected from the observed bathymetry, suggesting compensation via regional rather than pointwise isostasy. Most of the observed variation along the ridge can be ascribed to varying distance from the mantle plume, reflecting changes in mantle temperature and consequently in crustal thickness and lithospheric strength. However, a second-order variation is superimposed. In particular, between 59 degrees 30'N and 61 degrees 30'N there is a minimum of large-scale faulting and crustal magnetisation, maximum density of seamounts, and maximum axial free-air gravity high. To the north the scale of faulting increases slightly, seamounts are less common, and there is a relative axial free-air low. We interpret the 59 degrees 30'N to 61 degrees 30'N region as where the latest chevron ridge intersects the Reykjanes Ridge axis, and suggest that the morphological changes that culminate there reflect a local temperature high associated with a transient pulse of high plume output at its apex. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN
0012-821X
URI
https://sciwatch.kiost.ac.kr/handle/2020.kiost/6255
DOI
10.1016/S0012-821X(98)00104-6
Bibliographic Citation
EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, v.160, no.3-4, pp.463 - 478, 1998
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Subject
MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE; ACCRETING PLATE BOUNDARIES; AXIAL VOLCANIC RIDGES; EAST PACIFIC RISE; ICELAND PLUME; CENTERS; SEGMENTATION; MORPHOLOGY; DEPENDENCE; TOPOGRAPHY
Keywords
Mid-Atlantic Ridge; accreting plate boundary; tectonics; spreading centers
Type
Article
Language
English
Document Type
Article
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

qrcode

Items in ScienceWatch@KIOST are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

Browse