Emissions from ships’ activities in the anchorage zone: A potential source of sub-micron aerosols in port areas
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- Emissions from ships’ activities in the anchorage zone: A potential source of sub-micron aerosols in port areas
- Loh, Andrew; Kim, Dong Hwi; Hwang, Kyu Cheol; An, Joon Geon; Choi, Na Rin; Hyun, Sang Min; Yim, Un Hyuk
- KIOST Author(s)
- Loh, Andrew(Loh, Andrew); Kim, Dong Hwi(김동휘); An, Joon Geon(안준건); Choi, Na Rin(최나린); Hyun, Sang Min(현상민); Yim, Un Hyuk(임운혁)
- Andrew; 김동휘; 황규철; 안준건; 최나린; 현상민; 임운혁
- Busan Port is among the world’s top ten most air-polluted ports, but the role of the anchorage zone as a significant contributor to pollution has not been studied. To assess the emission characteristics of sub-micron aerosols, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in Busan, South Korea from September 10 to October 6, 2020. The concentration of all AMS-identified species and black carbon were highest when the winds came from the anchorage zone (11.9 µg·m−3) and lowest with winds from the open ocean (6.64 µg·m−3). The positive matrix factorization model identified one hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and two oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) sources. HOAs were highest with winds from Busan Port, while oxidized OOAs were predominant with winds from the anchorage zone (less oxidized) and the open ocean (more oxidized). We calculated the emissions from the anchorage zone using ship activity data and compared them to the total emissions from Busan Port. Our results suggest that emissions from ship activities in the anchorage zone should be considered a significant source of pollution in the Busan Port area, especially given the substantial contributions of gaseous emissions (NOx: 8.78%; volatile organic compounds: 7.52%) and their oxidized moieties as secondary aerosols.
- Journal of Hazardous Materials, v.457, 2023
- Elsevier BV
- Busan Port; Anchorage zone; Sub-micron aerosol; Ship activities; Aerosol mass spectrometer
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