Concrete structures are deteriorated with age and carbonation is one of major factors influencing on the durability of concrete structure. This research evaluates the effect of carbonation on the soundness of harbor concrete structure and quantifies the influence of carbonation based on in-situation data tested at 369 points in 69 harbor facilities. The relationships between carbonation and cover depth, and between carbonation depth and concrete strength are studied. Also, the failure probability of durability, that is the initiation probability of steel corrosion, is evaluated on the basis of reliability concept. The in-situation test results showed that the ratio of carbonation depth to cover depth was less than 0.2 and the carbonation depth increased with age. In most cases, the failure probability of durability by carbonation was less than 10%. Therefore, it could be concluded that the influence of carbonation on the durability of harbor concrete structure is not significant comparing its influence on the durability of other concrete structure such as building or subway tunnel.