World’s First Jellyfish Genome Decoded

Title
World’s First Jellyfish Genome Decoded
Author(s)
염승식
KIOST Author(s)
Yum, Seungshic(염승식)
Publication Year
2018-10-12
Abstract
Unique among cnidarians, jellyfish have remarkable morphological and biochemical innovations that allow them to actively hunt in the water column. One of the first animals to become free-swimming, jellyfish employ pulsed jet propulsion and venomous tentacles to capture prey. To understand these key innovations, we sequenced the genome of the giant Nomura’s jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai), and the transcriptomes of its medusa bell and tentacles. Analyses of Nemopilema and other cnidarian genomes revealed adaptations associated with active swimming and mobile predation, marked by codon bias in muscle contraction and the expansion of neurotransmitter genes. Nemopilema showed a conservation in cellular chemical homeostasis and ion transport function, probably reflecting the variable salinity of their habitats coupled with the high demand for sodium ions created by their muscle contraction-based locomotion. We also discovered expanded myosin heavy and light chain genes, Wnt genes, posterior Hox genes, and venom domains, possibly contributing to jellyfish mobility, medusa structure formation, and active predation, respectively. Taken together, the jellyfish genome and transcriptomes genetically confirm their unique morphological and physiological traits that have combined to make these animals one of the world’s earliest and most successful multi-cellular predators.venomous tentacles to capture prey. To understand these key innovations, we sequenced the genome of the giant Nomura’s jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai), and the transcriptomes of its medusa bell and tentacles. Analyses of Nemopilema and other cnidarian genomes revealed adaptations associated with active swimming and mobile predation, marked by codon bias in muscle contraction and the expansion of neurotransmitter genes. Nemopilema showed a conservation in cellular chemical homeostasis and ion transport function, probably reflecting the variable salinity of their habitats coupled with the high demand for sodium ions created by their muscle contraction-based locomotion. We also discovered expanded myosin heavy and light chain genes, Wnt genes, posterior Hox genes, and venom domains, possibly contributing to jellyfish mobility, medusa structure formation, and active predation, respectively. Taken together, the jellyfish genome and transcriptomes genetically confirm their unique morphological and physiological traits that have combined to make these animals one of the world’s earliest and most successful multi-cellular predators.
URI
https://sciwatch.kiost.ac.kr/handle/2020.kiost/23055
Bibliographic Citation
한국환경생물학회, pp.20, 2018
Publisher
한국환경생물학회
Type
Conference
Language
English
Publisher
한국환경생물학회
Related Researcher
Research Interests

Marine Genomics,Environmental Genomics,Novel biomaterials,해양생물유전체,생태환경유전체,바이오신소재

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